The State of Studying and Learning in Business Schools Today

Applying an Expectancy Theory Framework


  • Marcel M. Robles Eastern Kentucky University
  • Michael T. Roberson Eastern Kentucky University


Expectancy Theory, Study skills, Business students, Career success


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine students’ academic study attitudes and behaviors and the extent to which student work employment impacts either attitudes or behaviors.

Research Questions: The Expectancy Theory of Motivation was used to examine student perception of linkage between “effort and performance” (belief that hard work in school leads to better grades); between “performance and outcome” (better grades lead to future success); and the degree to which their study and work time, as well as study approaches and behaviors are consistent with expectancy theory prediction (their attitudinal beliefs).

Method: A questionnaire was received from 211 junior and senior university students, a majority (83%) of whom were business majors.

Findings: Students perceived a connection between effort and good grades, believed a connection existed between grades and future success, but spent 10 hours per week or less studying.

Conclusions: The methods that students used to study command more concern because they lack sound, long-term retention of learning.

Recommendations/Implications: Business educators need to continue to provide students with persuasive, impactful criteria about the importance and efforts of effective scholarship for creating a competitive advantage in their career for achieving long-term success.


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How to Cite

Robles, M. M., & Roberson, M. T. (2023). The State of Studying and Learning in Business Schools Today: Applying an Expectancy Theory Framework. Journal of Research In Business Education, 56(1), 17-31.

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