Business Education University Supervisors’ Challenges in Fulfilling Their Supervisory Roles and Responsibilities


  • Edward Fletcher Jr. University of South Florida


business education, Student Teaching, Teacher Education, Triad Relationship, University Supervisor


Background: Given university supervisors’ critical roles in preparing student teachers to become effective teachers and the knowledge they hold from past experiences, more research is needed to examine their issues and challenges in fulfilling their supervisory roles as well as in mentoring student teachers. Purpose: Thus, the purpose of this research study was to identify the top three issues and challenges business education university supervisors encounter when fulfilling their supervisory roles as well as the top three issues and challenges they face when mentoring student teachers. Method: The Delphi technique was implemented examining the perspectives of a national sample of business education university supervisors. Results: The expert panel established consensus that time issues was one of the top three dilemmas they confront in performing their supervisory duties. Conclusions and Recommendations: Accordingly, colleges and universities need to acknowledge and recognize the substantial commitment university
supervisors expend in performing their critical tasks. 


Anderson, N., & Radencich, M. (2001). The value of feedback in an early field experience: Peer, teacher, and supervisor coaching. Action in Teacher Education, 23(3), 66-74.

Ary, D., Jacobs, L., Razavieh, A., & Sorensen, C. (2006). Introduction to research in education (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Bates, A., Ramirez, L., & Drits, D. (2009). Connecting university supervision and critical reflection: Mentoring and modeling. The Teacher Educator, 44(2), 90-112.

Bullough, R., & Draper, R. (2004). Making sense of a failed triad: Mentors, university supervisors, and positioning theory. Journal of Teacher Education, 55(5), 407-420.

Clayton, M. (1997). Delphi: A technique to harness expert opinion for critical decisionmaking tasks in education. Educational Psychology, 17(4), 373.

Conderman, G., Morin, J., & Stephens, T. (2005). Special education student teaching practices. Preventing School Failure, 49(3), 5-10.

Crasborn, F., Hennissen, P., Brouwer, N., Korthagen, F., & Bergen, T. (2008). Promoting versatility in mentor teachers’ use of supervisory skills. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(3), 499-514.

Delbecq, A. L., Van de Ven, A. H., & Gustafson, D. H. (1975). Group techniques for program planning. Glenview: Scott Foresman.

Dennen, V.P. & Burner, K. (in press). The cognitive apprenticeship model in educational practice. In J.M. Spector, M.D. Merrill, M.P. Driscoll & J. van Merrionboer (Eds.) Handbook of research in educational technology, 3rd Ed. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Fives, H., Hamman, D., & Olivarez, A. (2007). Does burnout begin with student teaching? Analyzing efficacy, burnout, and support during the student-teaching semester. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(6), 916-934.

Fletcher, E., Mountjoy, K., & Bailey, G. (2011). Exploring concerns of business student teachers. The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 53(1), 14-27.

Fletcher, E., Mountjoy, K., & Bailey, G. (in press). Exploring the preparedness of business education teacher candidates for their internships: The perspectives of mentor teachers. International Journal of Adult Vocational Education and Technology.

Gimbert, B., & Nolan, J. (2003). The influence of the professional development school context on supervisory practice: A university supervisor’s and interns’ perspectives. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 18(4), 353-379.

Grossman, P., Schoenfeld, A., & Lee, C. (2005). Teaching subject matter. In L. Darling-Hammond, J. Bransford (Eds.), Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do (pp. 201-231). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hamman, D., Olivarez, A., Lesley, M., Button, K., Chan, Y., Griffith, R., & Elliot, S., (2006). Pedagogical influence of interaction with cooperating teachers on the efficacy beliefs of student teachers. The Teacher Educator, 42(1), 15-29.

Hite, R., Fletcher, E., Bruening, P., Durr, A., Yontz, B., Zatezalo, R., Williams, N., & Wolf, K. (2009). The preparation, roles, and responsibilities of teacher educators. In A. Selkirk & M. Tichenor (Eds.), Teacher Education: Policy, Practice, and Research. Hauppage, NY: Nova Publishers.

Hughes, M. (1993). Career-oriented program activities and learning experiences that promote achievement of middle-grade education goals. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus.

Kent, S. (2001). Supervision of student teachers: Practices of cooperating teachers prepared in a clinical supervision course. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 16(3), 228-244.

Killian, J., & Wilkins, E. (2009). Characteristics of highly effective cooperating teachers: A study of their backgrounds and preparation. Action in Teacher Education, 30(4), 67-83.

Mertens, D. (1998). Research methods in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Pena, C., & Almaguer, I. (2007). Asking the right questions: Online mentoring of student teachers. International Journal of Instructional Media, 34(1), 105-113.

Slick, S. (1997). Assessing versus assisting: The supervisor’s role in the complex dynamics of the student teaching triad. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13(7), 713-726.

Steadman, S. (2009). Cycles of confidence: Supporting university supervisors’ recursive trajectories of development. Teaching & Learning, 23(3), 98-110.

Steadman, S., & Brown, S. (2011). Defining the job of university supervisor: A department-wide study of university supervisors’ practices. Issues in Teacher Education, 20(1), 51-68.

Ulschak, F.L. (1983). Human resource development: The theory and practice of need assessment. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing Company, Inc.

Valencia, S., Martin, S., Place, N., & Grossman, P. (2009). Complex interactions in student teaching: Lost opportunities for learning. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(3), 304-322.

Weaver, D. & Stanulis, R. (1996). Negotiating preparation and practice: Student teaching in the middle. Journal of Teacher Education, 47(1), 27-36.

Whitney, L., Golez, F., Nagel, G., & Nieto, C. (2002). Listening to voices of practicing teachers to examine the effectiveness of a teacher education program. Action in Teacher Education, 23(4), 69-76.




How to Cite

Fletcher Jr., E. (2023). Business Education University Supervisors’ Challenges in Fulfilling Their Supervisory Roles and Responsibilities. Journal of Research In Business Education, 54(2), 1-15.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 79

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.